History – of the – Persian – Empire

The unknown history of the Persian Empire

Persia is the ancient name of Iran. Iran is one of the largest civilizations in the world, dating back to the earliest times. The history of Iran is thousands of years old. This is the beginning of the Manian civilization of Azerbaijan, located on the Iranian plate. Then came the city-i-Sokhta of Zabul. According to historians, the Shahar-i-Sokhta Empire was replaced by the Elam Empire and the Akemenid Empire. This was followed by the Persian and Sassanid empires; The fall of which led to the rise of the modern Islamic Republic of Iran. Today’s discussion is about the Persian Empire.

The way to start

The word Persia comes from Pars. It is the name of an ancient language. Ancient Persia was under the Assyrian Empire of ancient Nineveh. Five / six hundred years before the birth of Christ, the Persians overthrew the Assyrians and occupied Nineveh. The Iranians were Aryans. Then the Persian Aryans established a huge empire. The famous kings of this kingdom were named Cyrus, Darius, Xeroxis. In history, they are known as the Achimanid dynasty. This huge empire was ruled by the Persian Aryans for 220 years.  Then the Macedonian Emperor Alexander destroyed the empire. The region was originally inhabited by various Aryan tribes on the Iranian plateau around 2000 BC. The most important of these historically were the Medes and the Persians. The Medes began to settle in the northwestern part of the plateau. The Persians came from Persia, west of Lake Urmia. They settled in the southern part of the Iranian plateau and named the region Parsumash. The first great leader of the Persians was Hak Manesh. He was alive until 681 BC.

The rise of the Achaemenid Empire

The name of Cyrus is everlasting in history. He is called Cyrus the Great. According to historians, he is considered one of the best rulers and conquerors of all time.  LHe overthrew the Medes in 550 BC. He declared Media the first province of his empire. Then the kingdom of Cyrus became known as the Persian Empire. Cyrus established one of the largest empires in history during his lifetime. Historians believe that two characteristics distinguish Cyrus from other warriors and kings. First, he envisioned the creation of the first Iranian state. In different chapters of history, Iran has played an important role in different fields. Second, Cyrus had a very enlightening idea about the structure and nature of the empire. The Achaemenid Empire of Cyrus became a political entity. At that time, in the era of agrarian economy, Persia was lagging behind in agriculture. So considering the state’s financial situation, Cyrus focused on expanding the empire in anticipation of greater wealth.

200 years under Greek control

The treasury has been empty since the invasion of Greece by Emperor Georges in 480 BC. It was at this time that the great Greek hero Alexander the Great emerged. He had several battles with Emperor Darius III. This mighty empire fell to Alexander in 330 BC. Many revolutions took place in Persia in the 4th century BC. Finally, King Alexander of Macedonia launched a series of attacks on the Persian Empire from 334 to 331 BC, defeating the armies of Emperor Darius III and conquering Persia. Persia became part of Alexander’s vast empire. Then for 200 years the Greeks controlled Persia. Alexander recruited many Persian soldiers into his army, and under his direction all Greek high-ranking military officers married Persian women. When Alexander died in 323 BC, his army leaders began fighting for the throne of Persia. After several wars over the next few years, the vast Macedonian empire was divided between Cassander, Ptolemy I, Lycemacus, and Seleucus Nicator.  Cassander gained control of Greece, Ptolemy the First of Egypt, Lycimacus Thrace, and Seleucus Nicator control of Persia, Mesopotamia, and Central Asia. The Seleucids ruled over vast areas from the Indus River in the east to Syria and Asia Minor in the west. The Seleucid dynasty later formed the Seleucid dynasty throughout the Persian Empire.


At the top of the art

At that time, the Persians had always occupied the top position in art. At that time their contribution in religion, culture, architecture, art, science, technology etc. was one of the best. From this they were able to turn themselves into a global center. The Persians acquired special origins in metallurgy, textiles, rock architecture and many more. Especially the various sculptures carved on the hills of that time, the tombs still exist. The first Abbas to rule Persia at the age of 16 declared Isfahan his capital. During his reign, Isfahan became one of the most beautiful cities in the world. During the reign of Abbas, Persia rose to prominence in art. Enlightened manuscripts, pottery, painting all developed. The Portuguese, Dutch and English competed with Persia in establishing trade relations. Abbas was a generous and tolerant ruler. Apart from this, various geniuses have appeared in Persia at different times. In art, literature, painting, Persia once represented the whole world. The Persians held this dominion for generations. The wise men of that time took the lead in literature, culture and science. Even in the pre-Islamic era, the Iranians were so advanced in science and literature and culture that they influenced civilization in many ways. Patterns of pre-Islamic poetry and literature are scattered in the ancient Kilkiya, Pahlavi, Avesta and Aramaic languages.

Cyrus the Great

Cyrus is also known in history as the great Kurus. According to historians, he was the son-in-law of the last king of Media. According to some, he was her grandson. Within five years of coming to power, he was able to bring the Persian nation under his rule. He is considered one of the best rulers and conquerors of all time. Cyrus skyrocketed in popularity at the time. The Achaemenid Empire broke the tribal administration and domination of ancient Persia. Cyrus became the ruler of the Persian Passage after his father. The Achaemenid dynasty was basically his. At first, Cyrus maintained friendly relations with the King of Media and Nana Astiages. But revolted around 553 BC. When the compromise attempt failed, the two sides faced off in two rounds and Cyrus won.

Tomb of Darius the Great and Mountain

Between 522 and 486 BC, Darius the Great, king of the Achaemenid Empire of ancient Persia, ascended the throne. Wisely he was at the top of the time. He has been conquering various states around him. At that time he made his own tomb. He built his tomb on a high mountain near Persepolis, the newly established capital of the Achaemenid Empire. This is one of the wonders of ancient Persian civilization known as Nakshe Rustam. Nakshe Rustam is a mysterious mausoleum located about five kilometers northwest of Persepolis, the capital of the ancient Persian Empire. Nakshe Rustam means ‘image of Rustam’. It is the burial ground of four Achaemenid kings and their families, including Darius in the fourth or fifth year BC. Darius the Great, his three descendants Georges, Artaxerxes and Darius II – all four are buried here. At present a lot of visitors gather here.

The letter of the Prophet (sm) and the conquest of Persia by the Muslims

The Muslim conquest of Persia led to the fall of the Sassanid Empire in 651. This victory reduced the influence of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran. The Muslims invaded Sassanid territory in 633 AD. At that time, Khalid bin Walid invaded Mesopotamia, part of present-day Iraq. At that time the region was the political and economic center of the Sassanid Empire. The second phase of the expedition started in 636 under the leadership of Saad Ibn Abi Waqqas. In 642, Caliph Omar ibn al-Khattab ordered a full-scale invasion of the Sassanid Empire. This victory was completed in 651. According to many historians, once the letter sent by the Persian emperor the Prophet (sm) was torn to pieces. Upon hearing this, the Prophet (sm) foretold the conquest of Persia by the Muslims. Within a few days of the Prophet’s death, the prophecy came true. While Muhammad (sm) was alive, Bajan, the ruler of Yemen under the Persian Empire, and his people converted to Islam. As a result, the conquest of Persia began with the annexation of Yemen by the Medina-based state. During the reign of Rasulullah (sm), the ruler of Bahrain, an area under the influence of the Persian Empire, converted to Islam and Bahrain also came under the Medina-based state. At one time the regions of Kirman, Makran, Sistan, Khorasan, Azerbaijan, etc. came under the control of the Muslims one by one. Thus the prophecy of Muhammad (sm) about the conquest of Persia by the Muslims was fulfilled. Then the victory story of the Muslims was written in Persia.

While Muhammad (sm) was alive, Bajan, the ruler of Yemen under the Persian Empire, and his people converted to Islam.  As a result, the conquest of Persia began with the annexation of Yemen by the Muslims …

The poet is as literary as the historian of Persia

Many historical poets and writers have met in Persia. The author of the Persian epic ‘Shahnama’ is the great poet Ferdousi. Ferdousi was born in 940 in the village of Paz, near the city of Tus in northeastern Iran. Another Persian poet was Omar Khayyam. He has been called the best poet of the Islamic golden age. He is also a philosopher, mathematician and astronomer. Sheikh Saadi is also a Persian poet. He was born in the city of Shiraz in 1210. Poet Hafiz is also from Persia. There are different opinions about the exact information of his birth and death. The Iranians affectionately called the poet ‘Bulbul-i-Shiraz’. Maulana Rumi was a renowned Persian poet, jurist, Islamic figure, theologian, mystic and Sufi in the 13th century.

White coup and Islamic republic

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was born on October 26, 1919 in Tehran. He was deposed on 11 February 1979 as a result of the Islamic Revolution. He was the second emperor of the Iranian Empire and the last emperor of the Pahlavi dynasty. He is the son of Reza Pahlavi and his second wife, Taj ul-Mulk. At the age of 11, he enrolled in a Swiss boarding school called the Institute Le Rose. After four years of study, he returned to Iran in 1936 with a high school diploma. He then enrolled at the local military academy in Tehran and served until 1938. He came to power on 16 September 1941 during the Second World War. At this time Anglo-Soviet forces forced his father Reza Shah to resign from power. During his tenure, Iran’s oil industry was nationalized for a short time. As ruler, he launched a white coup d’etat around economic, social and political restructuring. As a secular Muslim, his popularity continued to decline as he lost support for the Shiites, clashed with the working class, merchants known as the bazaars, maintained ties with Israel, and became involved in corruption. In addition to adopting various controversial policies, the Socialist Party banned the Tudeh Party and involved the intelligence agencies in politics. According to state statistics, 2,200 political activists were sent to prison in 1978. Which led to the Islamic coup. The revolution took place on 17 January 1979 as a result of political instability. The Iranian monarchy was officially dissolved under the leadership of Imam Khomeini.

From ancient Persia

Today’s Iran

 *** Under the Assyrian Empire of Nineveh

Speaking of ancient Persia, first of all we have to talk about the Assyrian Empire. Parsa was under the Assyrian Empire of ancient Nineveh. Five or six hundred years before the birth of Christ, these Iranians or Persians overthrew their Assyrian lord and occupied Nineveh. The Iranians were Aryans.

*** The end of the Achimanid dynasty of Darius

The Achaemenid dynasty came to an end in Persia with the defeat of Darius the Great. After Alexander’s death, his kingdom was divided among the generals.

*** Sassanidu dynasty is the successor of the Achaemenid kings

The Sassanid dynasty came to power in the third century AD when the national awakening came again in Persia. They proclaimed themselves successors to the ancient Achirmenid kings. The time has come. Persian fierce nationalism.

*** Victory of Muslims

The Sassanid dynasty ruled Persia for a long time. They were at war with the Byzantines. In such a long war, the situation on both sides has deteriorated. 10 years after the death of Hazrat Muhammad (sm), Persia was conquered by the Muslims.

*** Muslims are the rulers of the vast empire

As a result of the conquest of Parsa, the Muslims became the rulers of a huge empire. By gaining dominance over this prosperous country, they became economically self-sufficient. The conquest of Persia served to regulate the further domination of the Muslims.

*** Mohammad Reza Pahlavi deposed

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was deposed on 11 February 1979 as a result of the Islamic Revolution. He holds the surname Shahenshah. He also received the title of Ariam, the elder Arteshtaran. He was the second emperor of the Iranian Empire and the last emperor of the Pahlavi dynasty.

*** Islamic coup

According to state statistics, 2,200 political activists were sent to prison in 1978. Which led to the Islamic coup. He became embroiled in a feud with Islamists over the US-backed government in the United Kingdom, and communist activity increased.

*** Ibrahim Raisul-Sadati was elected President in 2021

Sayyid Ibrahim Raisul-Sadati is an Iranian conservative and principled politician and Muslim judge.  He was elected President of Iran in 2021.

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