Emperor of the Golden Age

Emperor of the Golden Age

Caliph Harun Al Rashid

Harun Al-Rashid, an Abbasid caliph thousands of years ago. Who was the ruler of the bustling city of Baghdad. During his reign, the city of Baghdad reached its zenith. The time was called the Golden Age of Islam because the city of Baghdad reached the pinnacle of science, religion and culture. On the one hand he was a loving ruler to the innocent people, on the other hand he was a symbolic terror to the unjust. Who established the Islamic calipha in the light of the Qur’an. Today’s discussion is about the biography of the famous character Khalifa Harun Al Rashid in the history of Islam.

The great hero of the calipha at a young age

As children we read story books and became acquainted with Khalifa Harun Al Rashid. He took place in our imaginary kingdom through the story of an Abbasid caliph thousands of years ago. The history of the Islamic golden age, the magnificent palace of the caliph, the ancient city of Baghdad, and the rule of a just ruler were revealed at a glance. And many must have remembered the TV serial Arabian Nights (Arabian Nights) of the nineties! The fictional character of that serial was created with the Abbasid Caliph Harun Al Rashid.

He was born on March 17, 763 or 766, in the region of Rai under the Abbasid Calipha. His father’s name was Al Mahdi and his mother’s name was Al Khaizuran. His childhood teacher was the famous teacher Yahya Barmak. Growing up, Khalifa Harun Al Rashid became a talented person like Guru. After the death of al-Mahdi in 786, he became the fifth ruler of the Abbasid dynasty. He was only 20 years old then. At a young age, he became the ruler of the calipha and turned ancient Baghdad into a city of prosperity. People call Khalifa Harun aur Rashid ‘correct’ and ‘just’. Caliph Harun Al Rashid ruled from 786 to 809. His rule is called the Golden Age of the Abbasid Caliphate, as science, religion and culture flourished in Baghdad. He died in the city of Tus in 809 after a long 23-year reign of calipha. He was buried there. Zubaida was his partner in married life. At the time of his death, Caliph Harun Al Rashid left behind three sons. Their names are Al Amin, Al Mamun, Al Mutasim respectively. According to the last wish of the caliph’s life, his son Al Amin took over as the next ruler of the Islamic calipha.


Caliph Harun Al Rashid has been called the great hero of the Islamic calipha. Islamic historians call him the Emperor of the Golden Age. During his reign the Abbasid caliphate flourished. At that time Damascus was the capital of the Abbasid Caliphs. From there, the capital was moved to Baghdad, Iraq. It was the summer vacation of the Persian emperors. From here, the Abbasids could easily keep an eye on Asia. Because Baghdad is far away from Europe. At one time the Abbasid caliphs began to consolidate the empire. The period of Caliph Harun Al Rashid was the best period of the Abbasid Empire. During this time Islamic art and culture spread considerably. Caliph Harun Al Rashid established Baitul Hikmah, the famous library in Baghdad. Baitul Hikmah was a library, translation center and educational institution established in Baghdad, Iraq during the Abbasid period. It is considered as one of the major intellectual centers of the Islamic Golden Age. Baitul Hikmah reaches its highest peak at this time. Harun al-Rashid and his son Khalifa al-Mamun brought many learned men to the House of Wisdom to exchange knowledge. From the ninth to the 13th century, numerous scholars, including Persians and Christians, were involved in this research and educational institution. In addition to translating and preserving books in Arabic, scholars have made fundamental contributions in various fields. In addition, Caliph Harun Al Rashid built innumerable hotels, mosques, madrasas and hospitals one by one for the benefit of his subjects and common people. Numerous scholars from home and abroad started coming to Baghdad. Crowds of students and artists in particular continued to grow. Because the caliphs respected the wise. Baghdad became a place of learning. At one time the role of the Barmaki family in establishing the Abbasid caliphate began to wane. In 796, he transferred his court and caliphate government to the present-day city of Raqqa (Tus) in Syria.

As Haroon Al Rashid became intellectually, politically and militarily prosperous, his life and court became the subject of various stories. Although some of these are real, most of them are considered as fiction. One of the real incidents was the sending of watches to Charlemagne. It was given as a farewell gift to the Frankish party, which had sent a letter of friendship to Harun Al Rashid in 799. Charlemagne and his men thought the sound and activity of this watch were magical. This shows how prosperous science and art were during the reign of Harun Al Rashid.

Another common occurrence is the distribution of food to hungry women. One night, Caliph Harun Al Rashid went on a night trip with a companion. In fact, it was a means of finding happiness and sorrow for the citizens of the state. It was pitch dark at night. Going a little farther, the caliph suddenly heard the sound of a baby crying. Due to the dark environment, it was not possible to determine the place of crying. At one point, the caliph traversed a wide sandy path and found the source of the sound. Standing in the dark, Khalifa and his companions tried to observe the whole incident. At first it was understood that a woman was cooking something in the oven. Beside him two children are crying for food. But the woman is going to give food to the children as soon as possible. Thus some time passed. Realizing the matter, the caliph and his companions approached the woman as strangers. Asked about the incident to the woman, the woman began to talk about his helplessness. These two children are my children, my husband was martyred in the war. I tried all day but couldn’t find any food for them. The first of the visitors was shocked to hear these words and ordered the young man next to him to carry flour and dates on his shoulders for their meal. After a while the young man came back with food. Shortly afterwards, the woman learned that the man who had brought food for them was Al Mutasim, the son of Caliph Harun Al Rashid.

The image of the reign of Caliph Harun Al Rashid painted in our hearts through various stories is basically fiction; Different from reality. But in our imagination, we still walk in the alleys of Baghdad. I am fascinated to think of the caliph’s justice and wealth.

Politically successful caliph

The Kharijites revolted shortly after Caliph Harun Al Rashid took over the caliphate. The uprising first broke out in Mosul but later spread to Armenia and Azerbaijan. Al-Walid led the Kharijites in these areas. Harun al-Rashid killed her first, but Laila took over the rebel Kharijites as another female successor to al-Walid. The movement gained new dimensions after Laila took the lead. Known in Arab history as the Joan of Arc. The remnants of that movement spread to Iraq. The caliph adopted a strict policy to suppress this movement of the Kharijites. Defeating the rebel Kharijites, the party leader gave Laila the right to return to normal life. In addition to suppressing the Kharijite movement, Harun Aur Rashid achieved political success. The Byzantines have been at loggerheads since the time of Caliph al-Mahdi. At that time Caliph Harun succeeded in the war against the Byzantines. As a result, he was given the title of Rashid in the caliphate. After the victory of Harun Al Rashid in the war, the conflict continued. As a result, at the beginning of his reign, in 791, there was a dispute with the Byzantine ruler. The Byzantines agreed to pay taxes because Aaron succeeded in that dispute. But after the Byzantines changed their power, when Dysephores came to power, he began to oppose the payment of taxes and to deny the Abbasids. To teach it right, the caliph led the army in the war against Dysephoras. Dysophores was largely defeated. But later in 808, when he revolted again, he again defeated Dysephoras, Caliph Harun Al Rashid. According to historians, no such breach was made during the caliph’s reign. This happened several times before the death of Harun Al Rashid. However, Caliph Harun Al Rashid has repeatedly proved his heroism by winning. One of the events of his reign was the suppression of the insurgency in Africa. Soon after Harun Al Rashid came to power, there was a revolt. The caliph sent Harsama there to quell the rebellion. Harsama’s extraordinary tactics suppressed the rebellion there and Ibrahim Ibn Aglab was appointed ruler there. After this, Aglabi rule was established there in a hereditary manner. Thus Caliph Harun Al-Rashid established the Abbasid caliphate on a solid foundation and ascended to the golden peak of political success.

Extensive progress in the study of knowledge

During the reign of the Caliph, Baghdad and the Abbasid Empire developed much more than the European empires. In ancient times, science was not practiced in Egypt, China or India. Glees had the practice of science. But there was no science in Rome. The Arabs had an inquisitive mind. The practice of modern science began with the Arabs. Mathematicians and scholars from India also used to go to Baghdad. From them the Arabs gained knowledge about mathematics, medicine etc. One of the great virtues of the Arabs was that they could easily learn any new discovery. The Arabs also learn a lot from China, such as making paper. The Arabs began their own method of research based on the knowledge they had acquired from others. The Arabs were the first to invent binoculars. The medical system in Arabia was very advanced. Their medical practice also had a great reputation in Europe. Baghdad was the center of Arab development and learning. Another region in the west had a developed Arab civilization. That was in Spain. The capital was Cordoba. In addition, many other cultural and educational centers of the Arab Empire were located in Cairo, Basra. But in the time of Harun Al Rashid, Baghdad was the best. Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Caliphs, was the center of art, culture and beauty. Just as the Arabs were thirsty for knowledge, so he was addicted to travel. They used to cross the sea and establish colonies in different parts of the world.

Conducting the state in Islamic Sharia

Raqqa is a city in Syria. From there a letter came to Caliph Harun Al Rashid. It was written in that letter that the trial was closed for a long time due to the illness of the judge of Raka city. Caliph Harun Al- Rashid arranged for a new judge in response to the letter. A few days later, the guards brought an old woman to the court as an accused. The old woman was caught red-handed stealing bread and honey from a restaurant in the city. At trial, the old woman admitted that she had been starving for the past week. Two orphaned grandchildren were also starving with him. Unable to bear their hungry looks and tears, the old woman stole. Hearing the old woman’s words, the judge looked around the court. He announced that tomorrow the city, food, Sharia, security chief and dignitaries of the society will be present. The verdict of theft of old woman will be announced in front of everyone. The next morning, in the presence of all, the judge pronounced the verdict: ‘The old woman was sentenced to 50 lashes, 500 silver coins and one year imprisonment for non-payment. However, the hand was cut off for accepting the truth.

The judge ordered the guard to bring the whip and went downstairs and stood beside the old woman. The judge said the biggest culprit in a city where a hungry old woman was forced to steal out of hunger was the caliph of the country. And I have come to represent the caliph. So let 20 of the 50 whips die in my hands. According to the order, 20 lashes were given to the judge. Blood is flowing from the blow of the whip. The judge forbade anyone to come forward to tie the hands of a judge. The judge then said that in a city where the mayor, the head of a food warehouse and other philanthropists could not support a needy woman, they were also criminals. So let the remaining 30 whips be killed equally. The judge then placed 50 silver coins on a handkerchief taken out of his pocket. Then the judge said to everyone present, ‘In a society where an old woman is made a thief, in a society where orphans are fasting, everyone is a criminal. So everyone present was fined 450 dinars of silver.

This time a total of 500 dinars of silver coins and 100 dinars of silver coins were given to the owner of 20 stolen shops out of the remaining 400 silver coins. With the remaining 380 silver coins, he said to the old woman, “These are for your sustenance. And next month you will come to the court of Caliph Harun Al Rashid. We apologize on behalf of the caliph. A month later, the old woman went to the caliph’s court and saw the man sitting in the caliph’s seat, who had conducted her trial. The caliph came down from the chair and said, “I apologized as a judge that day for keeping you and your two orphaned grandsons fasting.” I have called the court today. Forgive this vile caliph for not upholding the rights of the subjects.

The reign of the fifth caliph

The fifth Abbasid caliph was a warlord as well as a proletarian ruler. During his reign, innumerable palaces, schools, colleges, offices, courts, shops, amusement parks and playgrounds were planned around the wide highways. Trade with the East and the West flourished. The empire began to grow. The royal officials had to keep in touch with different parts of the empire. The post office was created for this. Numerous hotels and hospitals were built one by one for the benefit of common people. Baghdad became a place of learning. During his reign the Abbasid Caliphate established trade relations with distant Europe due to the development of shipping. Security arrangements were made for the traders in the areas under his rule and special facilities were provided to the traders. As a result, various developments were achieved in the field of business. One of the most radical changes during the reign of Harun al-Rashid was the establishment of a hospital called Al Bimaristan. It was a large clinic where all the renowned medical scientists of the Muslim world were engaged in providing services and research. Other important works during his time were the ‘Zubaida in the canal’ built at a cost of one million dinars to alleviate the water crisis of the Arabs. He patronized scholars and poets like Abdullah bin Idris, Shafi, Asmayee, Abdullah bin Noas etc. and gave shelter to famous singers like Ibrahim Mosuli in his court.

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